Homeowners Savings & Loan Bank v. Dailo
G.R. No. 153802
Decision Date


G.R. No. 153802. March 11, 2005.

HOMEOWNERS SAVINGS & LOAN BANK, petitioner, vs. MIGUELA C. DAILO, respondent.



This is a petition for review on certiorari Decision of the Court of Appeals in CA-G.R. CV No. 59986 rendered on June 3, 2002, which affirmed with modification the October 18, 1997 Decision of the Regional Trial Court, Branch 29, San Pablo City, Laguna in Civil Case No. SP-4748 (97).

The following factual antecedents are undisputed.

Respondent Miguela C. Dailo and Marcelino Dailo, Jr. were married on August 8, 1967. During their marriage, the spouses purchased a house and lot situated at Barangay San Francisco, San Pablo City from a certain Sandra Dalida. The subject property was declared for tax assessment purposes under Assessment of Real Property No. 94-051-2802. The Deed of Absolute Sale, however, was executed only in favor of the late Marcelino Dailo, Jr. as vendee thereof to the exclusion of his wife.

On December 1, 1993, Marcelino Dailo, Jr. executed a Special Power of Attorney (SPA) in favor of one Lilibeth Gesmundo, authorizing the latter to obtain a loan from petitioner Homeowners Savings and Loan Bank to be secured by the spouses Dailo's house and lot in San Pablo City. Pursuant to the SPA, Gesmundo obtained a loan in the amount of P300,000.00 from petitioner. As security therefor, Gesmundo executed on the same day a Real Estate Mortgage constituted on the subject property in favor of petitioner. The abovementioned transactions, including the execution of the SPA in favor of Gesmundo, took place without the knowledge and consent of respondent.

Upon maturity, the loan remained outstanding. As a result, petitioner instituted extrajudicial foreclosure proceedings on the mortgaged property. After the extrajudicial sale thereof, a Certificate of Sale was issued in favor of petitioner as the highest bidder. After the lapse of one year without the property being redeemed, petitioner, through its vice-president, consolidated the ownership thereof by executing on June 6, 1996 an Affidavit of Consolidation of Ownership and a Deed of Absolute Sale.

In the meantime, Marcelino Dailo, Jr. died on December 20, 1995. In one of her visits to the subject property, respondent learned that petitioner had already employed a certain Roldan Brion to clean its premises and that her car, a Ford sedan, was razed because Brion allowed a boy to play with fire within the premises. HTIEaS

Claiming that she had no knowledge of the mortgage constituted on the subject property, which was conjugal in nature, respondent instituted with the Regional Trial Court, Branch 29, San Pablo City, Civil Case No. SP-2222 (97) for Nullity of Real Estate Mortgage and Certificate of Sale, Affidavit of Consolidation of Ownership, Deed of Sale, Reconveyance with Prayer for Preliminary Injunction and Damages against petitioner. In the latter's Answer with Counterclaim, petitioner prayed for the dismissal of the complaint on the ground that the property in question was the exclusive property of the late Marcelino Dailo, Jr.

After trial on the merits, the trial court rendered a Decision on October 18, 1997. The dispositive portion thereof reads as follows:

WHEREFORE, the plaintiff having proved by the preponderance of evidence the allegations of the Complaint, the Court finds for the plaintiff and hereby orders:


1. The declaration of the following documents as null and void:

(a) The Deed of Real Estate Mortgage dated December 1, 1993 executed before Notary Public Romulo Urrea and his notarial register entered as Doc. No. 212; Page No. 44, Book No. XXI, Series of 1993.

(b) The Certificate of Sale executed by Notary Public Reynaldo Alcantara on April 20, 1995.

(c) The Affidavit of Consolidation of Ownership executed by the defendant

(c) The Affidavit of Consolidation of Ownership executed by the defendant over the residential lot located at Brgy. San Francisco, San Pablo City, covered by ARP No. 95-091-1236 entered as Doc. No. 406; Page No. 83, Book No. III, Series of 1996 of Notary Public Octavio M. Zayas.

(d) The assessment of real property No. 95-051-1236.

2. The defendant is ordered to reconvey the property subject of this complaint to the plaintiff.


1. The defendant to pay the plaintiff the sum of P40,000.00 representing the value of the car which was burned.


1. The defendant to pay the plaintiff the sum of P25,000.00 as attorney's fees;

2. The defendant to pay plaintiff P25,000.00 as moral damages;

3. The defendant to pay the plaintiff the sum of P10,000.00 as exemplary damages;

4. To pay the cost of the suit.

The counterclaim is dismissed. jur2005cda


Upon elevation of the case to the Court of Appeals, the appellate court affirmed the trial court's finding that the subject property was conjugal in nature, in the absence of clear and convincing evidence to rebut the presumption that the subject property acquired during the marriage of spouses Dailo belongs to their conjugal partnership. The appellate court declared as void the mortgage on the subject property because it was constituted without the knowledge and consent of respondent, in accordance with Article 124 of the With respect to the damage to respondent's car, the appellate court found petitioner to be liable therefor because it is responsible for the consequences of the acts or omissions of the person it hired to accomplish the assigned task. All told, the appellate court affirmed the trial court's Decision, but deleted the award for damages and attorney's fees for lack of basis.

Hence, this petition, raising the following issues for this Court's consideration:



First, petitioner takes issue with the legal provision applicable to the factual milieu of this case. It contends that Article 124 of theArticle 493 of the

ART. 493. Each co-owner shall have the full ownership of his part and of the fruits and benefits pertaining thereto, and he may therefore alienate, assign or mortgage it, and even substitute another person in its enjoyment, except when personal rights are involved. But the effect of the alienation or the mortgage, with respect to the co-owners, shall be limited to the portion which may be allotted to him in the division upon the termination of the co-ownership.

Article 124 of the

ART. 124. The administration and enjoyment of the conjugal partnership property shall belong to both spouses jointly. . . .

In the event that one spouse is incapacitated or otherwise unable to participate in the administration of the conjugal properties, the other spouse may assume sole powers of administration. These powers do not include the powers of disposition or encumbrance which must have the authority of the court or the written consent of the other spouse. In the absence of such authority or consent, the disposition or encumbrance shall be void. . . .

Petitioner argues that although Article 124 of the Thus, petitioner would have this Court uphold the validity of the mortgage to the extent of the late Marcelino Dailo, Jr.'s share in the conjugal partnership.

In , it was held that the sale of a conjugal property requires the consent of both the husband and wife. In applying Article 124 of the squarely applies to the instant case. As shall be discussed next, there is no legal basis to construe Article 493 of the

Respondent and the late Marcelino Dailo, Jr. were married on August 8, 1967. In the absence of a marriage settlement, the system of relative community or conjugal partnership of gains governed the property relations between respondent and her late husband. With the effectivity of theConjugal Partnership of Gains in the

TheThe regime of conjugal partnership of gains is a special type of partnership, where the husband and wife place in a common fund the proceeds, products, fruits and income from their separate properties and those acquired by either or both spouses through their efforts or by chance. Unlike the absolute community of property wherein the the conjugal partnership shall be governed by the Thus, the property relations of respondent and her late husband shall be governed, foremost, by Chapter 4 on Conjugal Partnership of Gains of the THCASc

The basic and established fact is that during his lifetime, without the knowledge and consent of his wife, Marcelino Dailo, Jr. constituted a real estate mortgage on the subject property, which formed part of their conjugal partnership. By express provision of Article 124 of the

The aforequoted provision does not qualify with respect to the share of the spouse who makes the disposition or encumbrance in the same manner that the Thus, both the trial court and the appellate court are correct in declaring the nullity of the real estate mortgage on the subject property for lack of respondent's consent.

Second, petitioner imposes the liability for the payment of the principal obligation obtained by the late Marcelino Dailo, Jr. on the conjugal partnership to the extent that it redounded to the benefit of the family.

Under Article 121 of the

The burden of proof that the debt was contracted for the benefit of the conjugal partnership of gains lies with the creditor-party litigant claiming as such. Ei incumbit probatio qui dicit, non qui negat (he who asserts, not he who denies, must prove). Petitioner's sweeping conclusion that the loan obtained by the late Marcelino Dailo, Jr. to finance the construction of housing units without a doubt redounded to the benefit of his family, without adducing adequate proof, does not persuade this Court. Other than petitioner's bare allegation, there is nothing from the records of the case to compel a finding that, indeed, the loan obtained by the late Marcelino Dailo, Jr. redounded to the benefit of the family. Consequently, the conjugal partnership cannot be held liable for the payment of the principal obligation.

In addition, a perusal of the records of the case reveals that during the trial, petitioner vigorously asserted that the subject property was the exclusive property of the late Marcelino Dailo, Jr. Nowhere in the answer filed with the trial court was it alleged that the proceeds of the loan redounded to the benefit of the family. Even on appeal, petitioner never claimed that the family benefited from the proceeds of the loan. When a party adopts a certain theory in the court below, he will not be permitted to change his theory on appeal, for to permit him to do so would not only be unfair to the other party but it would also be offensive to the basic A party may change his legal theory on appeal only when the factual bases thereof would not require presentation of any further evidence by the adverse party in order to enable it to properly meet the issue raised in the new theory.

WHEREFORE, the petition is DENIED. Costs against petitioner. TICDSc


Puno, Austria-Martinez, Callejo, Sr. and Chico-Nazario, JJ., concur.


1. Penned by J. Juan Q. Enriquez and concurred in by JJ. Eugenio S. Labitoria, Chairman, and Teodoro P. Regino; Rollo, p. 34.

2. Penned by Judge Bienvenido Reyes.

3. Decision of the Court of Appeals dated June 3, 2002, p. 3; Rollo, p. 36.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid.

6. As quoted in the Decision of the Court of Appeals, pp. 1-2; Rollo, pp. 34-35.

7. Decision of the Court of Appeals, p. 5; Rollo, p. 38.

8. Id. at 6; Rollo, p. 39.

9. Ibid.

10. Id. at 7; Rollo, p. 40.

11. Rollo, p. 24.

12. Rollo, p. 26.

13. 353 Phil. 578 (1998).

14. Id. at 374.

15. Article 119, The

16. Article 105,

17. Article 106,

18. Article 90,

19. Article 108,

20. , G.R. No. 123850, January 5, 2001, 349 SCRA 24, 33.

21. Rollo, p. 27.

22. , 349 Phil. 942, 952 (1998), citing , 30 SCRA 111 (1969).

23. Id. at 954, 286 SCRA 272, 283 (1998).

24. ., 378 Phil. 1009 (1999).

25. , 336 Phil. 949 (1997).

26. , 205 Phil. 789 (1983).