Revised Regulations on Land Surveys
DENR Administrative Order No. 29-07

July 31, 2007


SUBJECT : Revised Regulations on Land Surveys

Pursuant to EITcaH


General Provisions

SECTION 1. Policy and Objectives. It is the policy of the state to accelerate the adjudication and disposition of lands of the public domain for the purpose of achieving tenurial security, land ownership equity, improvement of standard of living and stimulation of land market activities in consonance with the principles of sustainable development.

Toward these ends, the DENR shall pursue as a priority, the unification, synchronization and regulation of all surveys on, but not limited to, agricultural lands, mineral lands, forestlands, protected areas, civil and military reservations, road networks and lands for other purposes and expedite the conduct, verification and approval of surveys thereon.

a. In line with these policies and objectives, there is a need to progressively review and update the country's land survey regulations and streamline the survey procedures, simplify its requirements, and introduce provisions on business process reengineering; and,

b. It is also the objective of DENR to pro-actively enable all individuals concerned to keep abreast with the dynamic advancement of surveying practices and technologies and enhance their capability, effectiveness and the efficiency in the conduct of land survey for registration, development, and for other purposes.

SECTION 2. Scope and Coverage. This Order shall cover the policies and standards on land survey and mapping activities. Surveys covered include control surveys, cadastral surveys, isolated surveys, mineral and surveys, forest and protected areas/natural parks delimitation surveys. However, survey regulations and specifications governing forest delineation, hydrographic surveys, tidal observations, remote sensing and other allied field not covered by this Order shall be provided in separate issuances.

SECTION 3. Definition of Terms. The following terms as used in this Regulation are hereby defined as follows:

a. Cadastral Map (CM) shall refer to a map made as a result of a Cadastral Survey, drawn to appropriate scale and showing all land parcels and important natural and man-made features within a municipality/project, for purposes of describing and recording ownership. cDTHIE

Let's Go Green

b. Cadastre shall refer to a set of records about parcels of land consisting of a spatial reference and the related information on the area, ownership/claims, value and use of land primarily for taxation purposes.

c. Delimitation Survey shall refer to the establishment of the permanent forestland and protected area boundaries by conducting actual ground survey.

d. Geodetic Engineer (GE) shall refer to a natural person with professional expertise in the field of surveying and the corresponding survey data presentation in the form of maps, plans, geo-spatial digital maps, etc.; either in the government service or in the private practice, and who has been issued a Certificate of Registration and Identification Card by the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) Board of Geodetic Engineering pursuant to

e. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is the standard generic term for satellite navigation systems that provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning with global coverage.

f. Land Registration shall refer to the official recording of land ownership based on the legal documents submitted to the Register of Deeds for the Province or City where the land is located.

g. Metes and Bounds shall refer to the description of a land parcel with its boundary directions and distances, together with a note of adjacent property owners, their lot numbers, and other relevant natural and man-made features.

h. Monument shall refer to any concrete object that is set permanently in the ground to mark the position of a point or a boundary corner.

i. Muniments of Titles deeds and other documentary evidence of title or ownership to land. SCEDaT

j. Parcel Information Sheets (PIS) shall refer to a document recording the boundary adjudication agreement by all concerned and participating claimants or owners, in collaboration with the geodetic engineer, a Barangay official, and adjudicator, indicating and describing the boundaries of a land parcel and any natural features, marks and occupations that are or near the boundary in the manner prescribed in the Manual of Procedures.

k. Patrimonial Property shall refer to properties owned by the State but are not intended for public use, public service or for the development of national wealth.

l. Projection map shall refer to a map where all lots subject for verification and approval are plotted to determine cases of overlaps with previously approved plans.

m. PRS92 shall refer to the

n. Reclamation Projects Filling of submerged land duly approved by the Philippine Reclamation Authority.

o. Reference Point shall refer to a point appropriately marked on the ground with an established horizontal and vertical position.

p. Secretary shall refer to the Secretary of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).

q. Survey Plan shall refer to a two-dimensional map showing the metes and bounds of a surveyed parcel or parcels of land and other pertinent information.

r. Survey Returns shall refer to the collective documents submitted by a Geodetic Engineer (GE) as a result of the survey conducted and other relevant documents as may be required.

s. Unique Parcel Identifier (UPI) shall refer to the number exclusively assigned to a land parcel in reference to its physical spatial position on the Land Information Map (UPI = LIM Number + Parcel Number). cAaETS


Classification of Land Surveys

SECTION 4. Control Surveys. Shall refer to the survey conducted to determine the horizontal and vertical positions of points which will form part of a geodetic network or project controls over an area which will subsequently become the basis in determining the rectangular coordinates in an area.

a. Geodetic Control Surveys shall refer to the surveys conducted covering extensive areas which take into account the curvature and the geoid-spheroidal shape of the earth at sea level for the purpose of establishing basic network of reference points, covering the first and second order controls.

b. Project Control Surveys shall refer to the surveys conducted to establish the positions of points of reference for projects with a limited geographic coverage such as a municipality, a large isolated tract of land, a group settlement, a barangay or group of municipalities, covering primary control (third order),secondary control (fourth order) and tertiary control.

SECTION 5. Cadastral Surveys. Shall refer to the survey made to determine the metes and bounds of all parcels within an entire municipality or city for land registration and other purposes.

a. Numerical Cadastre shall refer to a cadastral survey wherein the bearings and distances of the individual lots are determined from the computations based on the actual ground survey.

b. Graphical Cadastre shall refer to a cadastral survey wherein the bearings and distances of the individual lots are determined using transit and stadia, scaling from photo map, and other graphical methods.

c. Public Land Subdivision shall refer to the subdivision of A&D lands covering an area of more than 1,500 hectares.

SECTION 6. Isolated Surveys. Shall be comprised of all classes of surveys of isolated parcels of land used for agricultural, residential, commercial, resettlement, or other purposes covering areas not more than 1,500 hectares. These surveys are classified as follows: TCaADS

a. Group Settlement/Townsite Subdivision Surveys shall refer to the subdivision of A and D lands of not more than 1,500 hectares into 50 parcels or more.

b. Public Land Surveys shall refer to all original surveys covering A and D lands which has not been subjected to private rights nor devoted to public use pursuant to the provisions of public land laws.

c. Amendment Surveys shall refer to the surveys covering untitled/undecreed properties by changing the number of lots thereof without affecting the original technical description of the boundary.

d. Private Land Surveys shall refer to the surveys covering lands claimed or owned by an individual, a partnership, a corporation, or any other form of organization, undertaken for purposes of original or subsequent land registration.

e. Government Land Surveys shall refer to the surveys of parcels of lands administered by or belonging to the National Government or any of its branches and instrumentalities which include:

i) Friar Land Estates Surveys shall refer to the surveys on the lands purchased by the government from the Religious Orders and private corporations from 1904 to 1913, for distribution to actual occupants and bonafide settlers pursuant to

ii) National Government Lands Survey shall refer to the surveys of all patrimonial properties owned by the government not intended for public use; and

iii) Local Government Units (LGU) Lands Surveys shall refer to the surveys on the lands acquired by the provincial, city/municipal, or barangay government pursuant to the

f. Conversion Surveys shall refer to the surveys conducted for the purpose of transforming/converting the lots covered by approved graphical cadastral surveys, cadastral mapping (Cadm) and photocadastral mapping (PCadm),into numerical or regular cadastral lots, with computation and plotting in the system of the cadastral project. DEIHAa

g. Other Land Surveys shall refer to the surveys made for purposes of determining the metes and bounds of parcels not included in the enumeration above and intended for a specific purpose

SECTION 7. Mineral Land Surveys. Shall refer to surveys of mining claims, quarry applications, sand and gravel applications, and other mineral lands within private or public lands, executed for mineral agreements, permits, licenses or for other purposes pursuant to the provision of

SECTION 8. Forestlands and National Parks/Protected Areas Delimitation Surveys. Shall refer to the surveys conducted by the Regional Composite Survey Team (RCST) or qualified private Geodetic Engineers in order to delimit on the ground the boundaries of forestlands and national parks/protected areas from the agricultural (A and D) lands as delineated pursuant to Sections 3 and 4, Article XII of the 1987


Practice of Geodetic Engineering within the Ambit of the DENR

SECTION 9. Persons Authorized to Conduct Land Surveys. All Land Surveys and mapping activities under the scope and coverage of this regulation intended for disposition, registration and other purposes shall be made only by a Geodetic Engineer pursuant to

a. He/She shall be a holder of a valid Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) registration, PRC identification card, current professional tax receipt (PTR) and tax identification number (TIN).

b. He/She shall be an active member of a PRC accredited association of Geodetic Engineers pursuant to

c. Geodetic Engineers in government service may execute surveys on government projects upon authority/order issued by a court or authorized official of the concerned agency. Section 9 a and b above shall also apply to them, except PTR. ACTIHa

There shall be created a national database of registered GE's. The LMS shall submit a listing of practicing GE's in their Region and the corresponding PRC Registration Number with the Date of Issuance, to the LMB who in turn shall validate the data thereof with the PRC-Board of Geodetic Engineering. Upon validation, the LMB shall update the GE's National Database and furnish all the LMS Regional Offices with the Official Listing for their reference.

SECTION 10. Geodetic Engineer's (GE) Dry Seal. In order to insure the authenticity of survey returns submitted to the DENR in accordance with laws and standing regulations, and to protect the public, all concerned practicing GE's are hereby required to use GE dry seal with an engraved PRC Registration Number and the Date of Issuance.

SECTION 11. GE Index Cards. The Regional Surveys Division (RSD) shall maintain an Index Card for every practicing GE which shall be signed by the said GE in every submission of their survey returns. The said Index Card shall contain the name of the GE, gender, date of birth, PRC Registration No.,and the date of issuance and space for three (3) specimen signature and three (3) initials. Moreover, it shall provide columns for information on the submitted survey plans such as survey symbol and lot numbers, location, area, name of claimants/owners, date of submission, acceptance logbook entry, number, and date of approval.

SECTION 12. Corporate Practice. In consonance with

SECTION 13. Blacklisting of Geodetic Engineering Practitioners. Firms, companies, partnerships, associations, corporations or individual practicing GE's who abandon DENR bid survey projects without reasonable cause shall be barred from participating in the bidding of other survey projects and in the actual conduct of such surveys. The LMB/LMS shall pursue the necessary and appropriate legal actions through the PRC Board of Geodetic Engineering and the proper Court against the said erring practitioners/firms. The LMB/LMS shall likewise publish/post the list of delinquent surveying companies or practitioners and may impose sanctions such as non-acceptance of the survey returns of isolated surveys submitted for verification and approval. Blacklisted practitioners may be reinstated upon completion of the project and in accordance with the Manual of Procedure.

SECTION 14. Utilization of . Consistent with the policy of upgrading survey and mapping practices, and database management, the LMB/LMS and practitioners shall utilize the most appropriate modern techniques and technology. The LMB shall develop a national system to expedite projection, verification and approval of surveys, which are consistent with the state-of-the-art technologies, processes and procedures.


Survey Order and Authority

SECTION 15. Authority to Conduct Surveys in Lands of the Public Domain. The GE shall first secure a survey order or survey authority before conducting surveys of lands of the public domain.

a. Survey Order (SO) shall refer to the instruction issued by the concerned DENR Official to a government GE or private GE to conduct survey over a parcel of land of the public domain or survey project for a specific purpose. DaHISE

b. Survey Authority (SA) shall refer to the permit issued by the concerned DENR Official to a private Geodetic Engineer to conduct isolated survey over public lands for public land application purposes.

SECTION 16. DENR Officials who shall Issue Survey Order and Authority. The following DENR officials shall issue SA/SO for the conduct of surveys of public and government land for land registration and other purposes:

Secretary - Parks and Protected Areas Delimitation
Surveys, SO if area covers 2 or more
- Delimitation Surveys for Watershed
Reservation, SO if area covers 2 or more
Director, LMB - Political Boundary Surveys, SO if area
involved boundary dispute between two
(2) or more provinces belonging to
different regions
- Isolated Land Surveys, SA if area is
covered by a special law/proclamation
giving jurisdiction to the LMB
Admin, NAMRIA - Delimitation Survey on Land
Classification, Survey Order (SO)
RED - Cadastral Surveys, SO
- Parks and Protected Areas Delimitation
Surveys, SO if area is 5,000 hectares and
- Political Boundary Survey SO if there is
no involved inter regional boundary
- Delimitation Survey for Watershed
Reservation, SO if area in the same region
is 5,000 hectares and above
- Reclamation Project Surveys, SO if area is
100 hectares and above
- Isolated Land Surveys, SO if area is more
than 100 hectares
- Survey of LGU Lands, SO for area more
than 100 hectares
- Foreshore Land Surveys, SA if area is more
than 100 hectares
RTD for Lands - Political Boundary Survey, SO if the involved
are the barangays of the same city or
- Public Land Subdivision, SO
- Reclamation Project Surveys, SO if area is
less than 100 hectares
- Townsite Reservation and Group Settlement
Surveys, SO if area is up to 1500 hectares
- Isolated Land Surveys, SO if area is more
than 12 hectares, up to 100 hectares
- Survey of LGU Lands, SO if area is up to 100
- Foreshore Land Surveys, SA if area is 12
hectares up to 100 hectares
Regional Director MGB -Mineral Land Surveys, SO
RTD for Forestry - Delimitation Survey for Watershed
Reservation, SO if area in the same region is
less than 5,000 hectares
RTD for PAWCZMS - Parks and Protected Areas Delimitation
Surveys, SO if area is less than 5,000
CENRO - Isolated Land Surveys, SA if area is 12
hectares and below
- Foreshore Land Surveys, SA if area is 12
hectares and below

SECTION 17. Survey on Lands within the Jurisdiction of Other Government Agencies. The Head of the concerned government agency or his/her duly authorized representative shall issue survey authority for survey of lands under the jurisdiction of their respective agency by virtue of existing laws. The copy of pertinent laws, legal documents or muniment of title stating therein their jurisdiction or ownership over the subject property shall be included in the survey returns. STEacI

SECTION 18. Survey of Private Lands. The GE shall undertake surveys of private land upon request or authority of the owner or legal claimant or authorized representative or upon receipt of a court order. He shall include the proof of ownership or any document stating the claimants/owners muniment of title to the land or the basis on which private ownership is claimed and the particulars thereof when submitting survey returns for verification and approval. If the land is encumbered as shown in the entry at the back of the title, a written authorization from the person or entity in which the encumbrance was executed in favor of, shall be submitted. In addition, if the land is subject of ongoing court litigation as shown at the back of title, a written authorization from the concerned court shall be secured. The certification on the copy of title by the Register of Deeds (ROD) shall be valid only for three (3) months before the submission of survey returns.

SECTION 19. Conditions in the Granting of Survey Authority and Survey Order. Before an SO/SA is granted, the following conditions are required:

a. Survey Authority That the parcel subject of the request shall:

1. Be within the A and D area.

2. Have no existing claims and conflicts

3. Be outside any existing civil, military and/or any other kinds of reservations

4. Not be the subject of a pending land registration case or any pending litigation.

5. Not be within any ongoing cadastral or public land subdivision project.

The report of investigation on the above conditions may also be used in the issuance of the corresponding patent, lease or any form of public land disposition.

b. Survey Order The following shall be required in the issuance of SO:

1. Clearance and/or endorsement from concerned agencies which has jurisdiction over the parcel involved.

2. Copy of court order, if the subject parcel of land is under litigation. ICTcDA

SECTION 20. Validity of Survey Order and Authority. The validity of SA and SO shall be as follows:

a. Survey Authority shall be valid for a period of 6 months from the time of its issuance up to submission of the corresponding survey returns.

b. Survey Order-shall be valid within the period as stipulated thereon.


Surveying Instruments

SECTION 21. Types of Survey Instruments. The following instruments shall be used in the conduct of surveys for the issuance of land patent, leases, adjudication of titles and for other administrative or judicial purposes:

a. Conventional surveying instruments which shall refer to the instruments in the conduct of traverse, triangulation, and trilateration and other terrestrial-based surveying methods.

b. Aerial photogrammetric instruments which are used in aerial triangulation, compilation and feature extraction using aerial photograph high-precision cameras mounted on an aircraft.

c. GNSS Receivers refer to User Segment in the satellite-based positioning system.

d. Smart stations a combination of GNSS and total stations.

Technical specifications of the above mentioned instruments shall be in accordance with the specific requirements necessary in a particular type of survey.

SECTION 22. Calibration and Registration of Surveying Instruments. All conventional survey instruments, GNSS receivers and smart stations shall be properly calibrated by and registered to the LMB/LMS before it can be used for any kind of survey covered by this regulation. Surveys made with instruments without valid registration shall not be accepted for verification and approval.

a. Original Certificate of Instrument Registration (CIR) shall be issued by the LMB after the calibration. A National Database on survey instruments shall be established and maintained/updated by the LMB. THaAEC

The validity of registration shall be:

1. For steel tapes: two (2) years or up to three (3) breaks, whichever comes earlier;

2. For engineer's transits and optical and electronic theodolites: three (3) years;

3. For EDM and ETS: two (2) years.

4. For GNSS Receiver: two (2) years.

b. Renewal of CIR may be issued by the LMS concerned after the usual recalibration thereof. A copy of the renewed CIR shall be furnished to the LMB for updating the National Database on Surveying Instruments.

c. A copy of the CIR shall be furnished the LMS at the start of every year for indexing purposes.


Coordinate Reference System

SECTION 23. Position of Survey. The complete horizontal position of reference points shall be expressed in latitude and longitude and rectangular grid (northing and easting) coordinates, collectively known as the Geographic and Plane Coordinates (GPC).In all cases, the coordinates of reference points shall be referred to PRS92.

SECTION 24. Datum. Shall be the level surface, which is at every point perpendicular to the direction of the gravity. It shall be used as reference for the position on the earth's surface (Horizontal Datum) and the elevation (Vertical Datum) of points. The data used in the country are the following:

a. Luzon 1911 Datum shall refer to the Triangulation Station Balanacan located in Marinduque Province which has the following description:

Coordinates: Latitude = N 13 deg. 33 min. 41.000 sec.
Longitude = E 121 deg. 52 min. 03.000 sec.

b. PRS92 Datum shall refer to the modified Luzon 1911 Datum which was adopted as the datum for PRS92. Upon full implementation of PRS92, the PRS92 Datum (adjusted Luzon 1911 Datum) shall be the sole datum to be used in all surveys and mapping in the country. The PRS92 Datum shall have the following description:

Spheroid : Clarke 1866

Geoid-Spheroid Separation : 0.34 meters

Coordinates : Latitude = N 13 deg. 33 min. 41.000 sec.

Longitude = E 121 deg. 52 min. 03.000 sec.

SECTION 25. Coordinate System. Shall be the mathematical system of locating positions based on the standard datum and GPC. The following are the coordinate systems for survey in the country:

a. Local Plane Coordinate System (LPCS) also known as the "floating" reference system wherein the surveys are referred to location monuments with no definite geodetic positions and no subsequent adjustment to the basic geodetic control network. These reference points are established as the need arises, per survey project (Public Land Subdivision, Group Settlement, Townsites, etc.) or per locality or municipality, wherein the relative position among the control points within the same system can be determined.

b. Philippine Plane Coordinate System (PPCS)/Luzon 1911, also known as the Philippine Transverse Mercator (PTM),are transformed from geographic to grid coordinates on the Luzon 1911 Datum, determined through astronomical observations. PPCS-PTM was adopted as the coordinate system in the Philippines pursuant to Lands Circular No. 64, dated June 30, 1965 with the following characteristics:

Spheroid : Clarke 1866
Projection : Transverse-Mercator, in Zones of two degrees net
Point of Origin : Intersection of the Equator and the Central
Meridian of each zone, with Northing of 0 meter
and an Easting of 500,000 meters
Scale factor at the Central Meridian: 0.99995

c. PPCS/PRS92 shall be the plane coordinate system referred to the modified Luzon 1911 Datum known as PRS92. It shall replace the PPCS/Luzon 1911 and serve the standard coordinate system for all surveys in the country pursuant to

SECTION 26. Data Conversion, Transformation and Integration to PRS92. All existing survey records, maps and plans shall be transformed and integrated to PRS92.

a. The current set of parameters being used to transform WGS84 coordinates into PRS92 coordinates and vice-versa shall continue to be utilized in the densification or establishment of EaScHT

b. To facilitate proper integration of datasets into PRS92, the Bureaus and regional offices shall convert expeditiously all technical description of lots and survey maps/plans in their custody into digital files.

c. Recovery and observation of existing reference points shall be prioritized by the LMS.

d. The PPCS/Old Luzon coordinates of datasets still in LPCS shall be derived before transformation to PPCS/PRS92 coordinates. Submission of digital survey returns shall be encouraged to minimize conversion works.

e. All surveys and maps that are still subject to ground survey pursuant to the policy issuances/proclamations or those not referred to any coordinate system shall immediately be converted to existing geodetic or project control.

f. To address the problem on unavailability and insufficiency of survey records, the LMB/LMS and NAMRIA shall initiate programs/activities on the reconstruction of all damaged or worn-out maps/plans and technical descriptions and reconstitution of all those missing, in accordance to existing rules and regulations on such activities.

SECTION 27. Conversion of Graphical Cadastre to Numerical Cadastre. All approved graphical cadastre shall be converted to numerical cadastre and integrated into PRS92.


Survey Accuracy

SECTION 28. Control Surveys. For the purpose of this Regulation and consistent with the adoption of

a. Geodetic Control:

Accuracy Relative Error Linear Error Nominal Space Vertical Accuracy
First Order 1/100,000 1 cm per km 50 km 4.80 mm multiplied
by the square root
of the Distance
Second Order 1/50,000 2 cm per km 25 km 8.40 mm.
multiplied by the
square root of the
Third Order 1/20,000 5 cm per km 12.0 mm.
multiplied by the
square roots of the
Fourth Order 1/10,000 10 cm per km

b. Project Control:

1) As per accuracy, these are classified into Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Control Surveys, the specifications of which shall be the following:

Accuracy Area to be Accuracy of Relative Linear Vertical
Control Controlled Geodetic Error Error Accuracy
12.0 mm.
Primary Over 15,000 3rd Order 1/20,000 5 cm per multiplied by
Control hectares km the square
root of the
Secondary 1,500 to 1/10,000 10 cm per
Control 15,000 4th Order km
Tertiary Less than 1/5,000 20 cm per
Control 1,500 km

Standard of accuracy for traverse, triangulation and trilateration using transit and other conventional instruments is as follows:

SPECIFICATION Primary Secondary Tertiary
Spacing of stations Between 100 m. to 100 m. to 500 m. As required
1,000 m
Area to be controlled Over 15,000 1,500 to Less than
(hectares) 15,000 1,500
* Angular error of closure 2".5/P 10".0/S 30"./T
not to exceed
SPECIFICATION Primary Secondary Tertiary
No. of observations:
Positions with 1" Theo. 2 1 as required
Sets with 20" or 30" 6 D/R for interior 4 D/R for interior clamped plate
transit and exterior angles angle for circuit
and loop traverse
** Linear error of closure 0.0001 Pp 0.0002 Ps 0.05 t
not to exceed (5cm per km) (10cm per km) (20cm per km)
Azimuth reading 1" 10" to 15 " 30" to 1 minute
Instrument least reading 1" Theo or 20" to 1" Theo or 20" t 1 minute transit
30" transit 30" transit
Astronomic obsn: 8 or 4, am and 4 or 2,am and 2, pm
No. of series night or day 4,pm
Probable error of astro.
obsn not to exceed 5" 10" 15"
Azimuth checks not 20" 30" as required
No. of stations between
azimuth checks not to 25 35 50
*** Distance Measurement Nearest mm. with Nearest mm. with Nearest cm.
Cs,C t, Cp Cg and Cs, Ct, Cp Cg and measured once
Csl measured twice Csl measured twice
Probable error
or distance measurement 1:40,000 As required As required
not to exceed
Vertical accuracy 12.0 mm.
multiplied by the
square roots of the
Relative error after
azimuth adjustment 1:20,000 1:10,000 1:5,000
* P, S, T is the no. of stations
** P p, P p, P t is the perimeter of the control
*** Cs, Ct, Cp, Cg, & CsI is correction due to sag, temperature, pull, grade & sea level
Spacing of stations 1-3 Km 1 Km Consistent
not to exceed with good sighting
Angular observations
Position with 1" theodolite 2 2 as required
Set with 20-30" transit 6 D/R for interior 4 D/R for interior 2 D/R
and exterior angle and exterior angle
Triangle closure not to 5" 10" 30"
exceed Base Measurement:
Probable error 1:40,000 as required as required
not to exceed
Check on based not to 1:20,000 1:10,000 1:5,000

2) The location monuments shall be connected by a control of secondary precision from previously established reference point provided that no lots shall have a distance of more than one (1) kilometer from the nearest reference point.

SECTION 29. Cadastral Surveys. The GE shall be guided by factors of efficiency and effectiveness in selecting the surveying methods and equipment in order to attain the following accuracies:

a. The establishment of Controls and Political Boundary Survey (municipal) shall be in accordance with the 3rd order (Primary Control) accuracy requirement. The Barangay Boundary Survey shall be in 4th Order (Secondary Control) accuracy.

b. Lot Survey Accuracy. The standard accuracy of traverse closure shall be in accordance with Tertiary Control Surveys requirements. CcTIAH

SECTION 30. Isolated Surveys. In conducting isolated land surveys, the GE shall be guided by the following:

a. Original, subdivision, consolidation or consolidation-subdivision isolated survey, shall be conducted using equipment and methods that will meet the tertiary control accuracy.

b. When conducting Relocation/Verification Survey, the Allowable Position of Error shall not exceed + 10 centimeters. However, the allowable difference in the area shall not exceed 1 square meters for every 1 hectare.

SECTION 31. Mineral Land Surveys. Survey of mineral lands, executed for mineral agreement, or for other purposes pursuant to the

SECTION 32. Forestland and National Park/Protected Areas Delimitation Surveys. The survey control accuracy shall be in accordance with the area coverage under the project control surveys. The perimeter survey shall be undertaken in the same manner as in isolated survey.


Reference Monuments

SECTION 33. Establishment of Reference Monuments. Reference points, political boundaries and other tracts of lands shall be defined and marked on the ground by concrete monuments specified in the Manual of Procedure.

a. The first and last corner of lots along physiographic or natural features shall be monumented. Every prominent turn based on the highest tide line shall be considered as corner.

b. The LMB/LMS shall establish at least one pair of standard location monuments to be designated as BLLM No. 1 and BLLM No. 2 in each city and municipality.

c. Whenever necessary, additional location monuments shall be established along the controls of projects so that no lot shall be one (1) kilometer away from a reference point.

d. The establishment and densification of the national geodetic network shall continue to be undertaken in accordance with

SECTION 34. Kinds of Reference Monuments. Reference Monuments shall be any of the following:

A. Reference Monuments caIEAD

1) Geodetic Control Monuments

2) Bureau of Lands Location Monuments (BLLM);

3) Bureau of Lands Boundary Monuments (BLBM);

4) Political Boundary Monuments:

a) Provincial Boundary Monuments (PBM),

b) City Boundary Monuments (CBM),

c) Municipal Boundary Monuments (MBM),

d) Barangay Boundary Monuments (BBM);

5) Triangulations Station established by:

a) Bureau of Lands/Lands Management Services,


c) United States Army Corps of Engineers,

d) US Coast and Geodetic Survey,

e) Other organizations, the work of which is of acknowledged standard

6) Primary stations of approved Cadastral Surveys;


8) Church towers, historical monuments and other prominent permanent structures of known position;

B. Lot Corner Monuments

1) Standard concrete monuments.

2) Concrete posts which are part of the fence when not less than ten centimeters in diameter, or metal pipes not less than two centimeters in outside diameter. acAESC

3) Living edible fruit trees not less than fifteen (15) centimeters in diameter or trees belonging to the first group (as per Forestry Timber Classification) with diameter from fifteen to fifty (15-50) centimeters.

4) Points of masonry or concrete walls.

5) Immovable or fixed hard rock or boulders with exposed surfaced of more than one meter in diameter.

6) Pegs either made of wood or steel, being of a composition that will resist destruction by fire, natural corrosion or decay with at least 50 millimeters square in cross-section for at least 100 millimeters from the top and not less than 400 millimeters in length.

SECTION 35. National Database of Geographic and Plane Coordinates (GPC) of All Land Survey Reference Monuments. The National Database of GPC of all Land Survey Reference Monuments belonging to the Third Order and below shall be managed by the LMB with copies furnished to the concerned LMS. Data of the newly established reference points in the LMS shall be furnished to the LMB for updating of the National Database. The database shall also have online access between the DENR, LMB, NAMRIA, and the LMS regional office for data sharing and efficient servicing of the public.


Maps and Plans

SECTION 36. Types of Maps. The following are the types of maps:

a. Base Map shall be a map showing certain fundamental information, used as a base upon which additional data of specialized nature are compiled. The standard base maps of the Philippines shall be classified into regional, provincial, city, municipal and barangay boundary map. For those with approved cadastre, the base maps shall be Municipal Boundary and Index Map (MBIM),Barangay Boundary and Index Map (BBIM),and Cadastral Maps (CM).

b. Cadastral Map are those which shows all lots and other details of the cadastral survey within the quadrant.

c. Land Information Map (LIM) is a national standard spatial index map showing all land parcels covered by Cadastral and Isolated Surveys over a specific map area with their UPI. This is formerly referred to as the Cadastral Information Map (CIM). aSHAIC

d. Planimetric Map shall be a map which chows the correct horizontal position of natural and man-made features.

e. Photo Map shall be a continuous representation of the ground obtained by assembling together individual photographs taken from an aircraft, into a composite picture, scale and the effects of tilt are corrected. If gridlines, contour lines, boundaries, place names, and marginal informations have been added or overprinted, it shall be known as Orthophoto Map.

f. Projection Map shall be a map wherein submitted surveys are plotted to detect the relative positions of surveys conducted.

g. Thematic Map shall be a map which represents a particular theme or subject, such as vegetation, forest cover, soils, slope, etc.

h. Topographic Map shall be a map which shows configuration on the earth's surface called Relief, and natural features thereon that include physiographic features, bodies of water, vegetation, and man-made features such as roads and buildings.

Standards and specifications for maps shall be provided in the Manual of Procedures.

SECTION 37. Project Control Maps. Are maps showing the main and subsidiary controls in a specific project. The survey control map shall be prepared on reproducible materials of stable base such as drafting film 0.03 mm with polyester or mylar base. The standard format dimensions and fonts shall be as prescribed in the Manual of Procedures.

SECTION 38. Political Boundary Control Map. The political boundary map (PBM) shall be prepared on a reproducible material of stable base as approved for official use by the LMB. This map shall be submitted to the LMB/LMS together with the approved political boundary control map and computations. If computerized print-out map, a digital copy of the said map shall also be submitted. The political boundary map shall be prepared in accordance with the Manual of Procedures.

SECTION 39. Cadastral Progress Map. The progress map based on the control survey of the project shall be made on reproducible materials of stable base as prescribed in the Manual of Procedures. SDIACc

SECTION 40. Cadastral Maps (CM). The CM, as a base map, shall serve as the primary source of land cadastre.

SECTION 41. Barangay Boundary and Index Maps (BBIM). Is a base map coextensive with a cadastral case for each barangay prepared for each cadastral case (one barangay is equal to one case) in a convenient scale on drafting film or other stable transparent materials in the same size as a cadastral map. Other pertinent information shall be included as required by the Manual of Procedures.

SECTION 42. Municipal Boundary and Index Maps (MBIM). Is a base map coextensive with the boundary of the cadastral project covering the entire municipality drawn in a convenient scale on drafting film or other stable transparent materials in the same size as a cadastral map and showing other pertinent information as required by the Manual of Procedures.

SECTION 43. Orthophoto Map (OPM). OPM shall serve a dual purpose of positioning points to facilitate the survey of land parcels in difficult areas where it satisfies the accuracy standard set by the principle of graduated accuracy, consistent with land use, as may be specified by instructions, or provide graphical positioning of unavailable map detail for completion of the LIM. Detailed instructions on the procedures shall be issued by the LMB Director.

SECTION 44. Isolated Surveys Plans. All plans and forms to be used in isolated surveys conducted for administrative or judicial registration purposes shall be in accordance with the standard format as prescribed by the Manual of Procedures.

Geodetic Engineers shall submit their original plans properly prepared, the masthead filled up, signed and sealed. TIN, PTR, PRC ID Numbers should be indicated in the Survey Plan.

SECTION 45. Survey Symbols and Numbering for Isolated Plans. A system for identifying survey plans comprising of survey symbols, Regional codes and Control Numbers as per entry in the Regional Survey Registry Book shall be established, maintained and updated. This system shall be used in the classification and identification of all kinds of surveys to facilitate the recording, filing and record keeping of survey plans and maps and their corresponding survey returns. A preliminary numbering system based on the existing Receiving Log Book Entry Number to track the status of survey returns prior to fits approval shall also be established.

SECTION 46. Mineral Land Survey Plans. Survey plans of mining claims shall be prepared on the isolated survey plans. Titled properties within the claim shall be properly plotted. The format and text of the plan shall be as prescribed in the Manual of Procedures. SEcITC

SECTION 47. Forestland and Protected Areas Boundary Maps (FPABM). Upon completion of the field survey and preparation of other survey returns, the RCST shall generate FPABM per province, complete with all the annotations, covering the entire Project area, in accordance with the standards set forth in the Manual of Procedures. Sub-classification shall be treated separately.

SECTION 48. Standard Signs and Symbols. Standard signs and symbols used in mapping and other cartographic works, with their corresponding dimensions and colors, shall be included in the Manual of Procedures to be issued by the LMB Director.

SECTION 49. Technical Descriptions. A technical description for each lot, whether computer/electronic or manually generated, duly signed by the concerned geodetic engineer, shall be prepared upon approval of the survey plan. It shall contain pertinent information as prescribed by the Manual of Procedures and submitted with the survey plan for land registration purposes.

The technical description for previously approved survey plan may be issued by LMB/LMS for registration and other purposes.

SECTION 50. Cancellation and Rejection of Approved Survey Plans. Any survey or plan may be cancelled, amended and rejected by the approving official.

1) Cancellation Surveys later found to be erroneously and/or spuriously approved and not in accordance with the purpose for which it was authorized may be cancelled, as in:

i. Survey for the purpose of land registration covering non-alienable and disposable area;

ii. Previously approved surveys of different claimants per order of the court;

iii. Previously approved subdivision covering surveyed and registered lands found to be erroneously executed and/or not in conformity with the owner's agreement; and

iv. Surveys executed in violation of this Regulation.

2) Amendment Any survey or plan may be corrected and amended by administrative action of the approving official, provided; in the case of amendment affecting an untitled land parcel boundary, the land claimant or registered owner and adjoining land claimant or registered owner consent to said amendment. Amendment surveys cover unregistered lands for purposes of changing the boundary lines and by increasing or decreasing the number of corners and lots without affecting the original area. EITcaH

3) Rejection Surveys found to be covering previously approved survey and/or in-alienable areas when plotted on the projection map may be rejected.


Projection System

SECTION 51. Projection Map. In the absence of an approved CM or standard spatial index map, a provisional cadastral map, also known as projection map, shall be prepared in a scale of 1:4000 by using the length of minutes and second of arc of parallel and meridian passing through the BLLM No. 1 of the municipality or locality which is established as the point of reference for all surveys therein. The projection maps shall continue to function as progress maps in monitoring the verification and approval of survey plans until such time that a Land Information Map is instituted.

SECTION 52. Land Information Map (LIM). The Land Information Map (LIM),a computer-based standard spatial index map, shall be prepared by the LMS to improve monitoring of survey plans approval, detection of overlaps and prevention of double issuance of title. The LMB shall design the most appropriate labeling specification, scales and grid intervals, LIM numbering, parcel plotting and cross-indexing in order to suit Philippine conditions and following the policy on the unique parcel identification. The preparation of these maps shall be in accordance with PRS92.

a) Real (hardcopy) maps shall be consistent with the generally accepted elements of a map (title, orientation, scale, source of information, grids, legend, author, dates and other marginal information),and plotted in appropriate scales following the prescribed marginal information.;and

b) Digital (softcopy) maps easily converted into GIS-ready format and interfaced/integrated with other datasets and software environment. Database (Spatial and Aspatial) will be seamless (provincial, regional and national) and with built-in electronic data security system.


Physiographic Features

SECTION 53. Bodies of Water. In the preparation of plans and maps, all bodies of water such as arroyos, esteros, creeks, rivers, lakes, ponds, pools and the likes, found adjacent or within the lot, shall be properly indicated. CSTDEH

SECTION 54. Legal Easements. For the purpose of recreation, navigation, floatage, fishing and salvage, the banks of esteros, arroyos, creeks, and rivers throughout their entire lengths, situated in urban areas, agricultural areas, and forested areas shall be subject to the three (3) meters, twenty (20) meters, forty (40) meters easement for public use, respectively. The shorelines of seas and lakes, throughout their entire length are subject to twenty (20) meters easement pursuant to

SECTION 55. Salvage Zones and Coast Police. Lands bordering the seas, gulfs, bays, or ports shall be subject to easements of salvage zone of twenty (20) meters measured land ward from the interior limit of the shore line and an easement of coast police of six meters wide from the shore line within the salvage zone. The easement of coast police is the obligation to leave a right of way six (6) meters wide within the salvage zone.

SECTION 56. Easement for Public Use. In surveying land which borders esteros, rivers, navigable lakes, the sea or its arms, the Geodetic Engineer shall place a mark on the ground and indicate in the field notes and plans of the survey the easement for public use. The easement for public use as defined under

SECTION 57. Buffer Zone. Shall refer to a strip of land with natural or established vegetation, which provides an added layer of protection to the natural forest including mangrove forest. This shall be surveyed and established using standards provided for by existing laws, monumented on the ground and properly indicated on the map.


Notification of Survey

SECTION 58. Persons and Entities to be Notified Before the Conduct of Surveys. The following shall be notified when necessary before the conduct of control surveys:

a. CGSD/NAMRIA, Department of Public Works and Highway (DPWH) District Office;

b. Local Government Planning and Development Office (PPDO and MPDO/CPDO);

c. Barangay Officials; ETHCDS

d. The railway and communication companies;

e. Owners or claimants of properties within the area;

f. Other concerned government agencies.

SECTION 59. Cadastral and Isolated Surveys. For purposes of documenting the boundary agreement process, the Parcel Identification Sheet is adopted for use by all participating claimants in original isolated and cadastral land surveys, while in isolated subdivision or consolidation surveys of undecreed or untitled properties, only the participating survey claimants within the lot being surveyed shall be involved, unless there is only one survey claimant, in which case the single claimant's signature is indicative of his/her acceptance of the established boundaries.

SECTION 60. Mineral Land Surveys. Before the commencement of the survey, the geodetic engineer shall notify the DENR Regional Office concerned and the chairman of the barangay where the claim/application is located, of the date of the execution of the survey.

SECTION 61. Forestland and Protected Areas Delimitation. Delimitation survey shall be conducted with prior written notice to all the stakeholders thereof including local government officials, cultural/tribal communities, appropriate government and private entities, and other parties concerned. The said survey shall commence not earlier than five, (5) days upon receipt of such notice. If there are nearby or adjacent on-going survey projects, the Chief of Survey Party executing said survey shall be informed in writing for purposes of work coordination.


Approval of Survey

SECTION 62. Project Control Surveys. The survey returns of the main and subsidiary control shall be submitted to the LMS for verification and approval. The verification process shall compose of office (such as computerized verification) and on-site (such as test traverse) validation. Only project controls that were verified and approved shall be used in the verification of Political Boundary and Cadastral Lot Surveys.

SECTION 63. Completed Cadastral Surveys. Complete survey returns of the cadastral survey shall be submitted to the LMS for verification and approval. The verification process shall compose of office (such as computerized verification) and on-site (such as conduct of test traverse) validation. However, the LMS may conduct routinary inspection, as the need arises, while the survey is ongoing.

SECTION 64. Isolated Survey. Survey returns for the different kinds of survey shall be submitted to the LMS for verification and approval. The LMS shall post the official checklist of requirements of survey returns for different kinds of survey in prominent places in the Regional Office for the information of geodetic engineers. Incomplete requirements shall be a ground for non-acceptance. The LMS shall not impose any additional requirement not listed in the said checklist specified in the Manual of Procedures. The LMS may conduct on-site inspection and validation, during the conduct of the survey. cSaCDT

SECTION 65. Mineral Land Surveys. The LMS shall verify and approve survey plan of lots covered by mineral claims, quarry applications, and other related purposes in consonance with the provisions of

No mineral land survey plan inside the proclaimed, reserved or declared protected areas, forestland, timberland, or national parks shall be accepted unless there is legal basis to conduct such surveys.

SECTION 66. Forestland and Protected Areas Boundary Survey. Upon completion of the perimeter survey, the Chief of the RCST shall prepare, sign and submit the FPAB survey returns using prescribed forms for isolated surveys for transmittal to the Chief of the RSD for verification. It shall adopt "FBS (Forest Boundary Survey)" as the national survey symbol. The numbering system must likewise be consistent with the existing standards being used by the Department, particularly the LMS. The usual standard operating procedures in the verification of isolated survey returns shall be adopted, except that the approval shall be made by the RED concerned.


Management of Survey Records and Information

SECTION 67. National Geodetic Network. Information System. The National Geodetic Network Information System (GNIS) shall be established to provide management and operational support to the DENR, other stakeholders and general users of the network.

a. The GNIS shall consist of a national facility that shall have the storing, updating, reporting, transformation, data analysis, and security capabilities. The system shall also have online access between the DENR, LMB, NAMRIA, and the LMS regional office for data sharing and efficient servicing of the public.

b. The NAMRIA, in coordination with the LMB/LMS, shall be responsible for the development of the system and once it becomes operational, shall also install the system in the LMB and LMS, with corresponding provisions for linkages and security features.

c. The NAMRIA shall publish both in print and in digital form, the First and Second Order PRS92 Geodetic Control Points. The LMB in the national and the LMS in the regional scope shall do the same with the Third and Fourth Order Control Points. The format and the information in the certifications shall be uniform and in accordance with the joint issuance of the NAMRIA and LMB.

d. The NAMRIA and LMB/LMS shall regularly update the GNIS and shall periodically exchange digital copies in a uniform or compatible format of the same. The list shall include the name or designation, location (province, municipality, barangay),grid and geographic coordinates, and upon request, descriptions of the control points. TSEcAD

SECTION 68. Cadastral and Isolated Surveys. A national inventory and conversion into digital database of all approved land surveys in the country shall be conducted by the LMB/LMS. It shall comprise the national land spatial index (Land Information Map) which the LMB is mandated to establish.


Integration of Land Surveying Activities

SECTION 69. Conduct of Survey and Custodianship of Records.

a. The LMB in the national level and the LMS in the regional level shall be the repository of all DENR land surveying record and shall be in-charge of the execution of cadastral, isolated and project control surveys.

b. The LMB/LMS shall conduct a massive inventory of the survey records which includes data of Reference Points, Isolated Survey plans, Cadastral Maps, Lot Descriptions, etc; using the most appropriate method. The GSD/RSD shall be the custodian of all Survey Records, both the digital and hard copies.

c. The NAMRIA shall be the primary agency on the establishment of the National Geodetic Network of First and Second Order Accuracy, in which data shall be readily shared with the LMB/LMS.

d. The Office of the Regional Technical Director (RTD) for Lands shall be the custodian of the LIM at the regional level.

SECTION 70. Institutionalization of the RCST. Pursuant to Section 32 (b) of DENR Administrative Order No. 13, series of 2005, the Regional FNSPs and LEPs are merged to form the RCST.

a. The RCST shall be responsible in the conduct of delimitation of forest boundary, reservations, protected areas/national park.

b. Forest Boundary Delimitation Survey shall be conducted by RCST with a Geodetic Engineer as the Chief of Survey Party, pursuant to the EHSAaD


Institutional Mechanism

SECTION 71. Capability-Building. The DENR upon recommendation of the joint committee of the LMB and NAMRIA, shall pursue a nationwide Land Survey Program, integrating therein all the aspects in the implementation of programs with regard to the Land Sector. In consonance with this objective, funds for various activities with the aim of continuous system upgrading, manpower training, and facilities rehabilitation and modernization, shall be annually allocated.

SECTION 72. Conduct of ICE Activities. Information, consultation and education campaign shall be undertaken to generate awareness and support from the stakeholders and the general public and create a pool of national experts in geomatics, geodesy, property surveys, land investigations and adjudication, property appraisal and allied fields. Strategies shall include conduct of information campaigns and technology transfers, continuing professional education and forging of partnerships with other government agencies, non-governmental organization, and private entities.


Penalty and Sanctions

SECTION 73. Administrative Action. Any public officer or employee who knowingly surveys, classifies, or recommends the release of forest land as alienable and disposable land contrary to law, shall after the proper proceedings suffer the penalties imposed under Sec. 74,

SECTION 74. Denial of Approval. Violation of any provisions of this Regulation by the Geodetic Engineer and survey contractor shall be sufficient grounds for the RTD for Lands to deny the acceptance for verifications and/or approval of any survey made by him. In case he is in the service of the DENR, he shall be further subjected to administrative action that the RTD for Lands, the RED and/or the Director of LMB may deem justifiable under the circumstances.

SECTION 75. Filing of the Case with the PRC-Board of Geodetic Engineers. In case of approved surveys executed by Geodetic Engineer in private practice, the matter shall be referred to the PRC-Board of Geodetic Engineering for whatever penalty or sanction the fiscal and/or the Board may find necessary to impose in relation to the aETADI

SECTION 76. Administrative Sanctions. Any official or employee of the DENR found abetting or knowingly helping directly or indirectly in the approval of any survey in violation of the provisions of this Regulation shall be subjected to disciplinary action that the Secretary may find necessary.

SECTION 77. Misrepresentation. Any person who is found to be misrepresenting himself as Geodetic Engineer upon verification with PRC, shall be subjected to the filing of legal action in the proper court and the outright cancellation or rejection of the survey returns he/she submitted for verification and approval in the LMS.

SECTION 78. Interference with Survey and Monuments. Any person who shall interfere with the making of survey undertaken by the LMB/LMS or private Geodetic Engineers authorized by the appropriate DENR official, or shall interfere with the placing of any monument in connection with such survey, or shall deface, destroy or remove any monument so placed, or shall alter the location of any such monuments, shall be charged in the proper court in accordance with pertinent laws.

SECTION 79. Tampering and Removal of Records. Any DENR employee/personnel who is found tampering or removing without authority official records of the DENR/LMB/LMS/FMB/FMS and the regional field offices shall be administratively charged for dismissal by the Secretary without prejudice to filing of criminal charges in the proper court.

Any unauthorized person found tampering and or removing official records of the DENR/LMB/LMS/FMB/FMS and the regional field offices shall be charged in the proper court.

SECTION 80. Posting of List of Geodetic Engineers. The LMB/LMS shall post within its premises an updated list of Geodetic Engineers found guilty for gross violation of this Regulation, abandonment of survey projects, and other unscrupulous activities in relation to their submitted survey returns in the DENR. A copy of the said list shall also be furnished to other government agencies with concerns on land survey and titling.


Transitory Provisions

SECTION 81. Manual of Procedures. In accordance with Section 14 (d) of TcCDIS

SECTION 82. Repealing Clause. Any provisions of previous DENR orders, memorandum circulars and other issuances inconsistent herewith are hereby accordingly superseded, amended or repealed. The provisions of the DAO 98-12, the Revised Manual for Land Surveying Regulations in the Philippines that are still necessary shall be re-issued in the Manual of Procedures.

SECTION 83. Effectivity. This Order shall take effect upon acknowledgement of receipt of a copy thereof by the Office of the National Administrative Register (ONAR),and fifteen (15) days after its publication in a newspaper of general circulation.

Department of Environment and Natural Resources

Published in The Philippine Star on August 10, 2007.